3. The construction of the first Wall
The word ‘step’ is used rather than ‘phase’, because what is being described was one aspect of a more complex process
Step 2 Clear route and establish construction track [Military Way]
Step 3 Build temporary timber and turf walls Step 4 Dig ditch
Step 6 Dig Broad Wall foundation
Step 7 Build Broad Wall
[Step 8 Dismantle Timber Wall]
- The presence of the temporary Wall explains why the majority of the spoil from the ditch was thrown north, with only a small glacis bank to the south.
- The Vallum was completed [Step 5], while foundation trench for the Wall [Step 6], was not.
- Digging of a road foundation suggests there was plenty of less-skilled labour available early in the project, and emphasises the importance of a proper road in the overall scheme
... the Britons are unprotected by armour (?). There are very many cavalry. The cavalry do not use swords nor do the wretched Britons mount in order to throw javelins.'
“... under the rule of your grandfather Hadrian what a number of soldiers were killed by the Jews, what a number by the Britons”
Bibliography and sources
 Bidwell, P T, 2005 'The system of obstacles on Hadrian's Wall; their extent, date and purpose', Arbeia J, 8, 53-76. http://www.arbeiasociety.org.uk/journal.htm
 Caius Julius Caesar "De Bello Gallico" and Other Commentaries English translation by W. A. MacDevitt, introduction by Thomas De Quincey (1915) http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/10657
 Grey literature: Newcastle, Melbourne Street, Archaeological excavations. Archaeological services, University of Durham. http://csweb.bournemouth.ac.uk/aip/gaz2004/ene.pdf
 The Military Institutions of the Romans (De Re Militari) by Flavius Vegetius Renatus, Translated from the Latin by Lieutenant John Clarke, translation published in 1767. Etext version by Mads Brevik (2001)
 After Fig 15 p73 Bidwell, P T, 2005 'The system of obstacles on Hadrian's Wall; their extent, date and purpose', Arbeia J, 8, 53-76.
 James. 1989, Forester's Companion. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0631108114
 Breeze, D.J. 2003. "Warfare in Britain and the Building of Hadrian's Wall." Archaeologia Aeliana 32, 13 –16.
 The basic archaeology of The Vallum and other aspects of the Wall has been recently reviewed in: Wilmott, T. [ed]. 2009. Hadrian's Wall: Archaeological Research by English Heritage 1976-2000. [Most of the general information about the Vallum used in this article is drawn from the summaries of P72–75 & 131–136 cover, along with that from individual excavation reports] at http://www.english-heritageshop.org.uk/mall/productpage.cfm/EnglishHeritage/_51324/288647/Hadrian's%20Wall [Accessed 29/11/10]
 Earlier work on the wall: Hodgson, E. 1897. "Notes on the Excavations on the line of the Roman Wall in Cumberland in 1894 and 1895," Trans Cumberland Westmorland Antiq Archaeol Soc, o ser, 14, 390-407. And Haverfield, F. 1897. "Report of the Cumberland Excavation Committee, 1896," TransCumberland Westmorland Antiq Archaeol Soc, o ser, 14, 413-433
 Tony Wilmott, Hilary Cool, and Jerry Evans. "Excavations at the Hadrian’s Wall fort of Birdoswald (Banna), Cumbria: 1996–2000," in Wilmott, T. [ed]. 2009. Hadrian's Wall: Archaeological Research by English Heritage 1976-2000. After Fig.346, p. 252
 Wilmott, T. 2007. The Vallum. http://www.dur.ac.uk/resources/archaeological.services/research_training/hadrianswall_research_framework/project_documents/Vallum.pdf [Accessed 29/11/10]
 Frere, S. 1974. Britania. Cardinal Books. P 156–7
 This would appear to derive from confusion over the word pavimentum, a term used to describe a concrete floor, such as the base of as mosaic. [Viruvius. De Architectura, lib. VII cap. I.] In early scholarship, e.g.: Roman Roads in Britain by Thomas Codrington. 1903. Published by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, London. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Periods/Roman/Topics/Engineering/roads/Britain/_Texts/CODROM/1*.html [Accessed 29/11/10]
 Publius Papinius Statius, c. AD 95. Extract from Via Domitiana Silvae 4.3
 A full list can be found at http://www.romanbritain.org/epigraphy/rib_hadrianswall.htm [Accessed 29/11/10] See also: http://www.dur.ac.uk/resources/archaeological.services/research_training/hadrianswall_research_framework/project_documents/BuildingRecords.pdfWhich states; “8. Vallum stones. In 1936 five stones were found by the north and south mounds of the Vallum at Denton and a sixth stone was found to the west in 1953. One stone gave the name of an auxiliary unit, cohors I Dacorum, and the other five all seem to have named centurions. The stones, clearly building records for the Vallum, are thin, square slabs, and seven further examples, two with the names of different auxiliary units, have been recognised elsewhere on the Wall.” [Accessed 29/11/10]
 http://vindolanda.csad.ox.ac.uk/exhibition/army-2.shtml [Accessed 25/03/2011] Birley, R. 2009 Vindolanda: A Roman Frontier Fort on Hadrian’s Wall. Amberley http://www.amberleybooks.com/shop/article_9781848682108/Vindolanda%3A-A-Roman-Frontier-Fort-on-Hadrian’s-Wall Robin-Birley.html?shop_param= [Accessed 25/03/2011]